EMC Testing
ETS-Lindgren is the leading manufacturer of Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) test and measurement products.

ETS-Lindgren is the leading manufacturer of Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) test and measurement products. For more than 75 years, we’ve been making a wide range of products renowned for setting the research, development, production and service standards of the EMC test and measurement industry. ETS-Lindgren offers standard solutions for emissions testing and immunity testing, these include:

Emissions Standards:
  • CISPR 11, 22, 25, 32
  • MIL-STD 461 G
  • RTCA DO-160 G CE, RE
  • IEC 60601-1-2

Immunity Standards:
  • IEC/EN 61000-4-3 and -6
  • MIL-STD 461 RS 103, CS 114
  • ISO 11452-x
  • ISO 11451-x
  • RTCA DO 160 CI, RI

Related Products

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Case Studies

Date of Study: 09/09/2021
Kiwa expanding their test capabilities with new EMC Test Facility
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Date of Study: 01/27/2021
TÜV SÜD, Volpiano, Italy
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Date of Study: 10/05/2020
ALTER TECHNOLOGY (T�V NORD GROUP) - Spain
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Date of Study: 07/29/2019
Northeastern University Innovation Campus
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Date of Study: 05/10/2019
Eurofins MET Labs Reverberation Chamber
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Date of Study: 04/08/2019
EMC JAPAN CORPORATION SMART� 100 EMC Reverberation Chamber Test System with Copper Interior
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Date of Study: 12/01/2018
National Automotive Testing and R&D Infrastructure Project (NATRiP)
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Date of Study: 06/01/2016
University of Nevada, Reno Opens Newly Upgraded EMC Test Laboratory
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Date of Study: 06/01/2016
New EMC Test System for T�V Rheinland in Vietnam
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Date of Study: 01/01/2015
UTAC CERAM Automotive Test Chamber Evaluates Electromagnetic Capability and Safety Compliance of Automotive Vehicles
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Date of Study: 10/01/2013
Intel Bangalore Boosts In-House Acoustic and EMC Test Capabilities
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Date of Study: 09/01/2011
SGS Opens New Testing Center of Excellence
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Date of Study: 04/01/2010
New Three Meter EMC Chamber Expands TMC's Test Capabilities
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Date of Study: 07/01/2009
Bureau Veritas Expands its Littleton, Massachusetts Laboratory
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Date of Study: 07/01/2009
Boeing, St. Louis Selects ETS-Lindgren for Custom All-Welded Chamber Installation
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Date of Study: 05/01/2009
Intertek Expands EMC Lab with New 10 Meter Chamber
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Date of Study: 12/01/2008
EMC Automotive Test Facility Government of India Vehicle Research & Development Establishment (VRDE)
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Date of Study: 08/01/2008
The Electromagnetic Compatibility Test Chambers at General Motors Proving Ground, Milford, Michigan
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Date of Study: 04/01/2008
The EMC Test Center for Excellence at Ingenium Testing
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Date of Study: 02/01/2008
The New International Center for Automotive Research at Clemson University
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Articles and White Papers

Publication Date: 05/08/2019
5G Millimeter Wave Devices: The Impact on EMC Compliance Tests

The fact is that a tremendous amount of engineering work on test specifications, instruments and firmware is needed before 5G user devices will fulfill the promises made by the carriers. Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) is definitely one of the areas impacted, but one of the technical areas least talked about. The demand is growing quickly and there is a massive market for testing these devices, so now is the time to study the issues and prepare the lab for 5G

Author: James Young, Jari Vikstedt of ETS-Lindgren
Publication: SAFETY & EMC 2019
Publication Date: 03/31/2019
Mitigation of Band Edge Effects in Fourier Transform Based Time Domain Gating

Time domain gating is a well-known signal processing technique by first converting frequency domain data to time domain via inverse Fourier Transform. Time domain gating is thereafter applied as a filter to include or exclude certain time periods. One of the side effects of time domain gating is band edge effects where data near band edges is unreliable. Several mitigation techniques have been reported and implemented in commercial vector network analyzers, i.e., pre-gate windowing and post-gate renormalization. Even after applying these mitigation techniques, edge errors can still be significant. In this paper, we summarize these common mitigation methods, and utilize a different approach, referred to as Spectrum Extension Edgeless Gating (SEEG) method. In SEEG, frequency domain data is first extended beyond the edges smoothly, and time domain gating is applied over the extended data. In a wide range of antenna measurement applications, SEEG method is shown to be superior for reducing uncertainties from gating edge effects.

Author:

Zhong Chen ; Zubiao Xiong

Publication:

9 13th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP)

Publication Date: 11/04/2018
Modeling of Tapered Anechoic Chambers

A hybrid method that combines the finite element method (FEM), the Floquet mode analysis and the shooting and bouncing ray method (SBR) is presented to solve the quiet-zone field in large tapered anechoic chambers. In the method, the field equivalence principle is employed to replace the throat of the tapered chamber by a set of equivalent electric and magnetic currents. The Floquet mode analysis is employed to approximate the rest of the absorber lined walls by virtual surfaces with equivalent reflection coefficients. The total quiet-zone field then becomes the superposition of the field radiated by the equivalent currents, and the field scattered by the virtual reflective surfaces. The scattered field is calculated from the SBR method. The required equivalent currents of the throat and the reflection coefficients of absorber array walls are computed with the use of the FEM, which allows the considerations of the complex structure and near-field interaction. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.

Author:

Zubiao Xiong ; Zhong Chen

Publication:

2018 AMTA Proceedings

Publication Date: 07/30/2018
IEEE STD 1128-1998: IEEE Recommended Practice for RF Absorber Evaluation in the Range of 30 MHz to 5 GHz

What is IEEE STD 1128 Recommended Practice for absorber evaluation Current Structure: Instrumentations: Spectrum analyzers, Network analyzers, vector voltage meter, and EMC antennas Material bulk-parameter evaluation: measuring permittivity and permeability Absorber reflectivity: Arch, TEM horn TD method, waveguide, coaxial reflectometer.

Author:

Zhong Chen

Publication Date: 07/30/2018
ANSI C63.25.1 Validation Methods for Radiated Emission Test Sites

This article consists only of a collection of slides from the author's conference presentation. radiated emission testing; time domain site VSWR method; CISPR 16 SVSWR method; TD SVSWR method; ANSI; transmission lines and frequency domain analysis.

Author:

Zhong Chen

Publication Date: 12/04/2017
Investigation of deconvolution filters for high-resolution time-domain antenna measurements A numerical study

Time domain gating is a common technique in antenna measurements to remove or evaluate the effects of extraneous reflections. Complex valued frequency domain response is transformed to time domain impulse response via Inverse Fourier Transform, so time gating can be applied. This technique relies on enough time separation between the direct antenna response and the late time reflections so that gating can be applied. Long ringing antennas such as log periodic dipole arrays present difficulties in this application. Deconvolution algorithms, such as Wiener filter and inverse filter, have been shown to be effective for pulse compression to increase time-domain resolutions. This paper examines the effectiveness of the filters, with or without measurement noise. It shows that the inverse filter is near optimal, and should be used in most applications

Author:

Zhong Chen ; Zubiao Xiong

Publication Date: 11/03/2017
Regarding the Creation and Use of Dual Antenna Factors for Use in Normalized Site Attenuation (NSA) Measurements

In order to assist a customer with a lower measurement uncertainty contribution, ETS-Lindgren provides customers with a Dual Antenna Factor (DAF). This paper provides an equation to calculate Geometry Specific Correction Factors (GSCF) based on the DAF. GSCF is defined in ANSI C63.5-2017 [1]. GSCF is required for calculating the theoretical site attenuation values for site validation measurements.

Author:

Zhong Chen

Publication Date: 08/07/2017
Common RF absorbers evaluations in W-band (75-100 GHz)

This article consists of a collection of slides from the author's conference presentation. Conventional commercial polyurethane absorbers when optimized can achieve about 35-40 dB reflectivity in W band. Latex paint can degrade the absorber performance. Black tips do not significantly improve the performance. Best absorbers are convoluted absorbers (egg crate shaped). Second best are the 3 or 5 pyramids. Flat absorbers with optimized loading can achieve ~30 dB reflectivity in the W band. Wave can penetrate into the absorbers 1 deep. EMC hybrid absorbers generally can only achieve 20 dB reflectivity.

Author:

Zhong Chen

Publication Date: 08/07/2017
Homogenization modeling of periodic magnetic composite structures

Conventional closed-form homogenizing rules may be not accurate if the contrast of material properties is high, such as the case of ferrite tiles with gaps used in EMC anechoic chambers. A new homogenization method is proposed to handle such extreme cases. It uses the field solution of a single unit cell illuminated by a plane wave incident in the normal direction. By doing this, the physical interactions between adjacent inclusions can be taken into account. Numerical results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method over conventional closed-form homogenizing rules.

Author:

Zubiao Xiong ; Zhong Chen

Publication Date: 08/07/2017
Common RF absorbers evaluations in W-band (75-100 GHz)

This article consists of a collection of slides from the author's conference presentation. Conventional commercial polyurethane absorbers when optimized can achieve about 35-40 dB reflectivity in W band. Latex paint can degrade the absorber performance. Black tips do not significantly improve the performance. Best absorbers are convoluted absorbers (egg crate shaped). Second best are the 3 or 5 pyramids. Flat absorbers with optimized loading can achieve ~30 dB reflectivity in the W band. Wave can penetrate into the absorbers 1 deep. EMC hybrid absorbers generally can only achieve 20 dB reflectivity.

Author:

Zhong Chen

Publication Date: 08/07/2017
Site contributions for radiated emission measurement uncertainties above 1 GHz

Guidance on accounting for site imperfections in the uncertainty evaluation of emissions measurement result is provided by CISPR 16-4-2. Site Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (SVSWR) results from the chamber are used as the basis for estimating the uncertainty contributions due to the site. In this paper, we investigate two aspects of the uncertainty evaluation, and provide a method to estimate the uncertainties based on measured SVSWR data. Firstly, considering that the SVSWR results are under-sampled and under-reported using the current method, is it valid to assume 6 dB as the maximum SVSWR of the chamber Secondly, SVSWR measurements are only performed at the front, left, right, and center (optionally) of the quiet zone (QZ). We study if those locations are adequate representations of the entire QZ performance.

Author:

Zhong Chen, Zubiao Xiong

Publication Date: 08/01/2017
Introduction to the Crafted EMC Operational System

Many companies are looking to reduce their cost by using automated test software as their test process control. If your software controls the test then you open your labor pool. You are no longer restricted to technicians and engineers. There are lower cost resources available. This article was created to help electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) personnel understand EMC automated test software limitations and how to craft an EMC test system to maximize efficiency and minimize cost without sacrificing quality

Author:

Jack McFadden

Publication Date: 03/19/2017
Efficient broadband electromagnetic modeling of anechoic chambers

An efficient method is presented to numerically model anechoic chambers ranging from VHF to microwave frequencies. In this method, an approximate image theory is proposed to improve the accuracy of plane wave assumptions used at lower frequencies. At high frequencies, an efficient image-based ray tracing algorithm is developed which integrates with the approximate image theory seamlessly. Numerical results demonstrate the applications in the analysis of anechoic chambers for both low frequency and high frequency ranges.

Author:

Zubiao Xiong ; Zhong Chen ; Ji Chen

Publication Date: 10/30/2016
Limitations of the Free Space VSWR Measurements for chamber validations

Free Space VSWR measurement has been the de facto standard method for anechoic chamber performance evaluation for more than 50 years. In this method, a probe antenna is first kept parallel with the boresight angle while traveling along a linear path to record the receive pattern. The probe antenna is then rotated to a different angle to record a standing wave pattern along the same path. Reflectivity, which is used as the chamber performance metric, is calculated as a function of probe rotation angle from the VSWR ripples. Reflectivity obtained this way is shown to be the ratio of the reflections seen by the probe antenna to the incident field at the probe antenna. We demonstrate that reflectivity is affected by the antenna patterns of the probe antenna. Reflectivity measured using a higher gain probe typically yields better (lower) reflectivity level than using a lower gain probe antenna.

Author:

Zhong Chen ; Zubiao Xiong ; Amin Enayati

Publication:

Zhong Chen ; Zubiao Xiong ; Amin Enayati

Publication Date: 09/22/2016
Customized compact dielectric lens to improve double-ridge horn antenna performance for automotive immunity EMC test

In this paper we present a novel dielectric lens design placed in front of a double ridge horn (DRH) antenna to meet the technical requirements for Automotive Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Immunity tests. ETS-Lindgren 3119 DRH is selected as the reference antenna for its superior wide frequency range. In the new lens design, the shape of the conventional Plano-convex lens is modified to accommodate two seemingly contradictory requirements - to increase the gain of the antenna system to meet a target average field strength (100 V/m @ 2m distance), and in the meantime, to maintain the antenna beamwidth for field uniformity (FU) to be better than 6dB over 80% of the total number of frequency points. Additionally, it is desirable to keep the lens size small to reduce the cost and weight. Both numerical simulation and measurements results are shown, indicating that the proposed lens with DRH antenna is well suited for ISO 11451-2 Automotive Immunity tests.

Author:

Zhong Chen ; Aidin Mehdipour ; Leo Matytsine

Publication Date: 07/25/2016
Limitations of symmetry test method for antennas as specified in ANSI C63.5-2006 standard

The ANSI C63.5-2006 standard stipulates a symmetry test to check the antenna balance. The s21 response between two similar antennas, placed at 1m height above the ground plane, is first recorded. The antenna under test is rotated 180 and the response is recorded again. The difference gives the symmetry of the antenna and should be less than 1.0 dB. This paper discusses the limitation of the symmetry test configuration. Specifically, it specifies to place both transmit and receive antennas at a fixed height of 1m above a conducting ground plane, resulting the antenna under test to situate in a null field at some frequencies due to the ground reflection. The effect from the ground plane at the nulls of response distorts the symmetry test result. A new technique is proposed wherein the receive antenna (antenna under test) is placed at 1m height above the ground plane and the transmit antenna scans from 1m to 4m at a step of 0.05 m. The scanning of the transmit antenna helps to eliminate the nulls in the s21 response. Because the antenna under test is always at the fixed height, the measurement yields valid symmetry results for the antenna under test for 1 m height.

Publication Date: 02/01/2016
AUTOMOTIVE EMC TESTING: CISPR 25, ISO 11452-2 AND EQUIVALENT STANDARDS

Automotive standards addressing electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) are developed mainly by CISPR, ISO and SAE. CISPR and ISO are organizations that develop and maintain standards for use at the international level. SAE develops and maintains standards mainly for use in North America. In the past, SAE developed many EMC standards which were eventually submitted to CISPR and ISO for consideration as an international standard. As the SAE standards become international standards, the equivalent SAE standard is then withdrawn as a complete standard and reserved for use to document differences from the international standard.

Author: Garth D'Abreu, Craig Fanning and Ammar Sarwar
Publication Date: 12/01/2015
A NOVEL CONCEPT FOR EMC RADIATED IMMUNITY TESTING

The pressure to bring new products to the market, with reduced time to market, high quality and reduced cost, has never been greater. For most electrical and electronic products, the necessity of complying with electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) regulations in order to sell in global markets adds to these pressures. Considering the increased importance of EMC testing for electronic systems, the associated challenges seem to grow simultaneously. These challenges range from increased importance of EMC in the product design phase, to improving EMC test standards for new technologies to developing more efficient instrumentation for EMC testing.

Author:

Ammar Sarwar and Vincent Keyser

Publication Date: 09/01/2015
A Novel Concept for EMC Radiated Immunity Testing using Field Generators

To improve efficiencies and reduce costs in Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) testing, a new instrument is developed which merges antennas and amplifiers to overcome difficulties in the traditional EMC Radiated Immunity (RI) setup. A power amplifier is one of the most expensive instruments in an EMC RI test setup. In the conventional setup, according to IEC-61000-4-3, up to 6 dB of the amplifiers rated power is lost for several reasons, e.g., internal cabling within the amplifier, the amplifiers output combiner stage, directional couplers, and cables between the coupler and antenna itself. In this paper a novel concept is presented where active antenna arrays, amplifier stages and directional couplers are combined into one unit, termed a field generator. In this configuration, the E-field (V/m) requirement is emphasized rather than the rated power (W) of the amplifier. Although this concept is not limited to a certain field strength or frequency range, we will discuss the validation of this concept in the 1-6 GHz frequency range to generate 10V/m E-field at a 3m distance to meet the requirements specified in IEC-61000-4-3. The advantages of this concept and a few design challenges in implementation will be discussed. Simulation and measurement results will be presented.

Author: A. Sarwar, ETS-Lindgren and V. Keyser, ETS-Lindgren
Publication Date: 01/01/2015
Time-Domain Method on Validation of Radiated Emission Test Site Above 1 GHz

Interview of ANSI C63 SC1 Chairman, Mr. Zhong Chen, on his experience with Time-Domain Method on Validation of Radiated Emission Test Site Above 1 GHz

Author:

Zhong Chen

Publication Date: 10/01/2014
Application Note 14.001 ETS-Lindgren EMField Generator

In this application note we will address the generation of RF fields in the 1 to 6 GHz frequency range, discuss conventional methods of field generation, and introduce the ETS-Lindgren EMField Generator, a revolution in field generation.

Author: Onno De Meijer
Publication Date: 05/29/2014
Surface and internal-temperature versus incident-field measurements of polyurethane-based absorbers in the ku band [amta corner]

Welcome to the first edition of the Antenna Measurement Techniques Association (AMTA) Corner for 2014. As promised, Steve and I are pleased to bring you a summary of AMTA 2013. Chi-Chih Chen, the 2013 AMTA Technical Coordinator, put together a fabulous technical program, with 86 papers organized in 16 sessions, including two poster sessions. Steve and I are pleased to present the top six papers for AMTA 2013, as chosen by the Technical Review Committee, throughout 2014, with the first contribution found after this introduction.

Author:

Zhong Chen ; Vince Rodriguez

Publication Date: 05/01/2014
Reverberation Chambers for Wireless Applications

Owing to the beauty of its statistical behavior, reverberation chambers can be utilized as a measurement environment[1]. In a metallic cavity, numerous resonance modes can be excited. Each mode is induced by standing waves of the electrical fields that resonate with crests and troughs residing spatially. Such field variation due to resonance is seemingly contrary to the concept to establish a constant field with which the measurement can be repeated accurately inside the test volume. Repeatability is the key to the construction of a feasible measurement system. Although each individual resonance mode shows field deviation, the averaged field over sufficient modes can statistically achieve certain field uniformity that the measurement is then repeatable.

Author:

Yulung Tang, Shaoyang Cheng, John Xiao

Publication Date: 10/01/2013
EMC Test Laboratory Sofware Program Development: A Proven Process

Asymmetric filter designs are gaining popularity in industry because of their lower cost and size, however, although this design is successful in eliminating common mode signal issues this paper will show that for certain applications such as TEMPEST these filters offer little to no protection. Symmetric filters, although physically larger and more costly due to the use of more components, provide better filtering in these applications.

Author:
Jack McFadden
Publication Date: 05/23/2011
Practical Considerations for Radiated Immunities Measurement using ETS-Lindgren EMC Probes

ETS-Lindgren EMC probes (HI-6022/6122, HI-6005/6105, and HI-6053/6153) use diode detectors for rectifying electromagnetic fields. The probes are calibrated to report continuous wave (CW) root-mean-square (RMS) electric fields. For electric fields with modulations or complex field with multiple frequency components, these probes may not accurately report the instantaneous field values or the true power of the field. For commercial EMC measurements, such as fields with 1 kHz 80% AM as required in IEC 61000-4-3 (EN 61000-4-3), the field readings should be taken with the modulation off (CW or sine wave only).

Author:

Steve King

Publication Date: 06/01/2009
Improvements to broadband Dual Ridge waveguide horn Antennas

Dual-Ridged Horn Antenna (DRHA) are a workhorse in EMC and antenna pattern measurement laboratories. Their broadband capability allows the user to test over a wide frequency ranges without the need to stop the test to change antennas. Recently these antennas came under scrutiny when Burns et al. showed the pattern problems at the upper end of their band. Since their work new models have been introduced that corrected the problems of the DRHA in the 1 to 18 GHz range. In the present paper a CEM software is used to analyze the 200 MHz to 2 GHz design. Gain and pattern are computed. A prototype of the new version is measured. The measured results validate the computed predictions. The result is a DRHA with a smoother gain and pattern. This antenna maintains a single lobe in at a higher frequency than the traditional DRHA.

Author:

Vicente Rodriguez

Publication Date: 01/12/2009
Improving the Performances of a Reverberation Chamber: a Real Case

In a previous measurement campaign it was found that the reverberation chamber (RC) of CISAM EMC Department evidenced anomalous values of the quality factor (Q) - too low to be "right" for a fully aluminum chamber - and moreover, after some use it became absolutely evident that it was too easy to improve - lowering it, of course - the value of the lowest usable frequency (LUF) of this chamber. After some investigations on the chamber materials/components and on the assembly procedures, the authors developed the idea that this strange behavior had to be attributed to the tuners - being the original ones made with somehow absorbing material - and therefore they decided to replace them with new, all metal tuners. In this paper, the results of a calibration campaign on the reverberation chamber after tuner replacement are presented, as well as the results of an emission test on a standard reference source before and after the replacement. The calibration has been done in the frequency range 80 MHz divide 3 GHz, and the emission tests have been performed in the range 100 MHz to 1 GHz, which is exactly the frequency range of the reference radiator used to generate a standard spectrum. The comparison between the results obtained, under the same conditions, with the old and with the new tuners is presented, and the goodness of the assumptions demonstrated: with the new tuners the performances of the chamber have been considerably improved.

Publication Date: 08/09/2004
Complex fit normalized site attenuation using complex magnitude and phase patterns

Due to the diverse designs in log periodic dipole arrays (LPDAs), it is impractical to develop a set of unified correction factors for all types of LPDAs in site attenuation measurements. Even for log antennas with similar frequency ranges and appearances, large variations can be expected in their patterns and phase center positions because of the differences in the feed sections, boom sizes, relative spacings (a) and scale factors (/spl tau/) (Lo, Y.T. and Lee, S.W., 1988). Complex fit normalized site attenuation (CFNSA) has been used successfully by allowing phase centers to move along the centerline of the antenna boom, and by using analytical functions to represent radiation patterns. Approximately 1 dB improvement in antenna factors is observed over the ANSI C63.4/5 model for horizontal polarization. Similar improvements are shown in the vertical polarization. The paper also studies a method that may extend the frequency range by permitting phase centers to vary off-axis, or by using angle dependent phase center positions (which is equivalent to using complex magnitude and phase patterns).

Author:

Zhong Chen ; M. Foegelle

Publication Date: 01/01/1986
Using LISN as an Electronic System EMC Diagnostic Tool

Most EMC engineers consider a Line Impedance Stabilization Network (LISN) to be a device that presents the ac power line of the equipment under test (EUT) with a precise impedance over a designated frequency range. This is the required function of a LISN. A LISN can also be used as...

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